Silver Science

The use of silver in medicine dates back thousands of years, and scientists have long known that the metal is a potent antibacterial agent. Silver ions perform their deadly work by punching holes in bacterial membranes and wreaking havoc once inside. They bind to essential cell components like DNA, preventing the bacteria from performing even their most basic functions. The finding could lead to an enhanced ability to control the longevity of silver-based treatments. Doctors and hospitals already rely on an array of silver-infused medical products – from bandages to catheters – to prevent the proliferation of ­bacteria. The metal is commonly used on severe wounds and coatings on door handles can cut down on germs. Consumers can even buy products to reduce unwanted microbes at home, like silver-infused socks and washing machines that disinfect clothes with silver.

Silver Ions

It is not the silver that is responsible for the Antimicrobial but its silver ions. It is an incredibly effective way to eliminate and stop the growth of harmful microbes such as Bacteria Virus and Fungi. Silver-ion technology does not leach out silver and is safe to use even with food and water. As an inorganic, natural mineral, the element of silver has a widely recognized antimicrobial function. Silver ions refer to silver atoms from which one or more electrons have been lost, and which exist in an ionic state. They have an oxidizing power and are often used in daily life for disinfection and sterilization.

Principles for the antimicrobial properties of silver ions

  • Positively charged silver ions and negatively charged microbe cells are attracted to each other upon contact.
  • Silver ions pierce through the external surfaces of the cells and damage their DNA, as well as the protein structure, halting their metabolism and reproduction until they die. This explains the sterilization effect of silver ions.
  • After the cells have become inactive, silver ions leave but continue to act against microbes, delivering a constant antimicrobial performance with no toxicity or side effects.

Products protected by ORSi antimicrobial technology will negatively affect bacteria that contaminate the surface through

Protein damage

Proteins are essential for the biological systems of life. Any damage to these components causes the failure of essential functions such as energy production.

Cell membrane damage

By disrupting the microbes membrane, its structural integrity is compromised, which can cause essential nutrients to leak out and catastrophic structural failure.

Oxidative damage

Antimicrobials can cause increased levels of reactive oxygen species, which result in damage to the internal systems of the microbe.

DNA Interference

The genetic material of the bacteria is disrupted, ultimately stopping the bacteria from being able to replicate by blocking the copying of their genetic material.

About antibiotic resistance

Antimicrobial resistance is often used when describing microorganisms like fungi, viruses and bacteria which have developed an immunity against the medicines and treatments that used to be effective for treating infections. The term ‘antimicrobial resistance’ usually refers to all types of microbes, but this can be broken down to antifungal resistance for fungi, antiviral resistance for viruses and antibiotic resistance for bacteria.

You can also minimise your own risk of contracting harmful bacteria that could cause an infection by practicing good hand hygiene, preparing and cooking food safely and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
If we can reduce our chances of catching nasty infections then we will also reduce the need for being treated with antibiotics.
Hence Silver ions can be used to help maintain hygiene standards where keeping harmful Microbes at bay is critical. It’s effective even against drug-resistance bacteria like MRSA and can offer a powerful barrier against Microbes growing on surfaces where they can pose a risk to human health.


English: Silver
French: Argent
German: Silber
Italian: Argento
Latin: Argentum
Spanish: Plata

Basic Information:
Symbol: Ag
Atomic number: 47
Group number: 11
Mass: 107.868
Density @ 293 K: 10.5 g/cm3
Atomic volume: 10.3 cm3/mol
Melting Point: 961.93 C (1235.1 K)
Boiling Point: 2212 C (2428 K)
Heat of fusion: 11.30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 250.580 kJ/mol
Number of Protons/Electrons: 47
Number of neutrons: 61
Classification: Transition Metal
Crystal Structure: Face-centered Cubic
Color: silver
Hardness: 3.25 mohs
Characteristics: soft, ductile, tarnishes

Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s1
Minimum oxidation number: 0
Maximum oxidation number: 3
Minimum oxidation state: 0 (silver occurs naturally in ores in its elemental state)
Maximum oxidation state: 3 (the unit cell of silver oxide, Ag4O4, has two atoms of univalent silver and two atoms of trivalent silver)


With air: mild, =>Ag2O
With 6M HCl: none
With 6M HCl: none
With 15M HNO3: mild, =>AgNO3

Other Forms:
number of isotopes: 2
hydride(s): none
oxide(s): Ag2O
chloride(s): AgCl

Thermal conductivity: 429 J/m-sec-degC
Electrical conductivity: 630.5 1/mohm-cm
Electrical resistivity: 1.467 X 10-8 ohms-m (OoC)
Polarizability: 7.9 A^3

Silver occurs in the metallic state, commonly associated with gold, copper, lead, and zinc. It is also found in some 60 minerals including: argentite (a sulfide), cerargyrite (a chloride), many other sulfides and tellurides.


  • Uses of silver noted from 4000 B.C. thru this century
  • Hippocrates (Father of Medicine) taught about healing power of silver
  • Romans used silver in medicine
  • Used in other parts of the world for medicinal/healing value of silver
  • Unlike anti-biotic medicines silver has practically no bacterial (pathological) resistance

About antibiotic resistance

ClaimFact or FictionExplanation
Need to dump lots of silver metal/ions for anti-microbial efficacyFictionSilver is Oligodynamic – a little goes a long way. Need only 3 – 5ppm to be effective in the media
Need good amount of silver to be conductiveFactAll the silver present need to form a “layer” or layers to be able to allow movement of electrons to be classified as conductive
Extruded products with silver are conductiveFictionSilver needs to form a solid layer to be able to allow movement of electrons
Silver is ThermodynamicFictionFrom the principles of thermodynamics one can derive general relations between such quantities as coefficients of expansion, compressibility, specific heat capacities, heats of transformation, and magnetic and dielectric coefficients, especially as these are affected by temperature. These are laws not characteristic of a given material
Silver is the most Thermally conductive elementFictionSilver is quite thermally conductive but not the most. Diamond is the most thermally conductive
Silver is most electrically conductive elementFactIt is the more conductive than Gold
Silver is most malleable and ductile elementFactHence it is so easy to use in everyday life
Silver is effective against FungiFactIt is very effective against fungi such as yeasts and molds
Silver is broad spectrum anti-bacterial elementFactIt is very effective against both Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria
Silver is most reflective elementFactSilver mirror are best example of this. This property helps in providing good comfort for wearers of silver products both in hot and cold conditions
Silver has good IR signatureFact

Anti-microbial pathway

  • Protein denaturation
  • Blocks respiratory chain
  • Metabolite efflux
  • Blocks DNA replication
  • Massive proton leakage


  • Bonding of denatured protein of dead bacteria
  • Chemical bonding of other odor causing agents


  • As in anti-microbial property; a little of Ag Flex goes a long way.
  • Either as grounded delivery system or as corona discharge pathway Ag Flex moves charge by conducting it through the entire pathway to eventually into the ground or distributing the charge so that it will be spread evenly and hence make the article safe.

Thermal properties

  • Due to conductive nature of silver; energy in form of heat is evenly distributed across the article incorporated with Ag Flex.
  • This enables movement of heat resulting in keeping the subject cooler when it is warm or warmer when it is cold.
  • Measurement is done for thermal conductivity as CLO value or thermal conductivity. It is also measured in terms of “Comfort Factor”.